Depending on the development of science, culture and production, new disciplines, spheres of culture and industry constantly stood out, which, of course, left a mark on their classifications, namely an increase in the number of core groups. So what museums are? Museums are divided into specific, large groups, which can also be divided into subgroups due to a specific profile. Based on these classifications, several groups of museums can be distinguished.
The museums in which one can often find documented history of mankind for all periods of its existence - from ancient times to our time, the history of a particular nation or era, or specialized in archaeological excavations, numismatics, and so on, are classified as historical museums. As is known, in the 80s - 90s of the last century, there were about three hundred historical museums and two hundred of their branches in the territory of the former Soviet Union. Even today, most often you can find exactly the historical museums - this group is the most common.
There are about 120 museums with a military-historical focus, 80 reserve museums, 26 ethnographic museums and over 15 historical ethnographic museums, as well as architectural museums in Russia. More than half of the historical groups of museums are combined with similar museums around the world (International Association of Military History and Weapon Museums at UNESCO or the Organization of World Heritage Cities OWHC).
AT art museums You can find different collections, documentation of the history of art. The main goal of such museums is the satisfaction of aesthetic human needs. In the Russian Federation in the 90s there were about 350 such museums. The main subgroups are the museums of national and foreign art, visual arts (without a clearly expressed national inclination), architectural, sculpture museums, DPI (decorative and applied art), memorial museums.
You will be able to meet the creativity and historical information about both national and foreign writers and their works in literary museums. In the last decade of the last century in the Russian Federation there were about 150. In the famous Literary Museum of Moscow, you can find the largest collection of works on the history of foreign and Russian literature in our country - more than 650 thousand books, both handwritten and first printed, archives, funds of the most famous creators of domestic literature, photographs, memorabilia and memorial things, audio recordings and video recordings. In addition, the museum has 10 branches.
If the need arose, get acquainted with the history of musical works, then you need to turn to Museum of Musical Art. This group combined both museums of the history of music and musical culture. You can often find memorial complexes of famous composers. The largest in the Russian Federation is the Central Museum of Musical Culture. M.I. Glinka located in Moscow. There are about 770 thousand works in the main fund and 2 thousand in the additional scientific fund. Here you can see the archives of composers, some manuscripts, costumes and scenery, muses. instruments, audio recordings and sheet music. Also available to you 5 branches of this museum.
Theater lovers have access to a whole branch of museums - theater museums. In addition to the main task, the documentation of the history of the theater, this profile is divided into subgroups. Some of them are devoted to the national theater, others to the foreign one; There are theaters that collect information about the history of this type of art around the world. On the territory of the RSFSR there were more than sixty such museums, and an international center was established to coordinate the activities of this branch - the Association of Theater Museums and Libraries. Under her authority, a handbook was developed entitled Theatrical Collections of the World.
So we got to know what museums are there, on what basis they are divided into groups and subgroups and what direction of art is the main one in this or that museum. We hope our article was accessible and informative, and you, were able to learn a lot of new things.
Watch the video: What is a Museum? (February 2020).