Peredvizhniki artists made a huge contribution to the development of Russian and world art, creating a completely new aesthetic scale and expanding the storyline easel painting. Boldly experimenting in technology and composition, these creators of the new formation turned to social issues, transmitting their point of view and the mood of society through art. Much merit of the Wanderers lies in the course of artistic and educational work.
But why are these painters called "Wanderers" and where did they move? Let's try to figure it out.
From rebellion to traveling
The story of the Wanderers or the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions began with a bold rebellion - November 9, 1863. 14 of the most outstanding students of the Imperial Academy of Arts refused to participate in the competition for a large gold medal, which provided for a pensioner's trip to Europe. The painters did not want to carry out the assignment for the proposed plot (Feast in Valhalla), demanding creative freedom in choosing a theme, in accordance with "the personal inclinations of the artist."
All 14 painters left the Academy, creating for the first time in the history of Russia an independent artistic society - the St. Petersburg Artel of Artists. In 1870, Artel was renamed the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions. The purpose of the new association saw the organization of mobile traveling exhibitions that could travel to the provinces of Russia, acquainting residents with art.
Principles and objectives
He headed the partnership I. Kramskoy, together with other members of the association, he prepared a charter, which was approved by the Minister of Internal Affairs A. Timashev. According to the charter, the goals of the Wanderers (as they began to be called simply in a very short time) were good, aimed at the benefit of society, and to themselves:
- organize exhibitions throughout Russia, including acquaintance with the art of the province;
- develop a love of art and aesthetic tastes of the people;
- make it easy for artists to sell their paintings.
Democracy reigned in the structure and rule of the Partnership - all questions were resolved through voting at the general meeting of all members. Charter in its unchanged existed for 18 years. All upcoming amendments to the charter were aimed at narrowing democratic principles.
The leading direction was realism, and in many respects this realism was accusatory and dramatized. The authors in their works sought to raise acute social problems - class inequality, injustice, poverty, etc.
Ultimately, freedom, once proclaimed by 14 rebels, slowly began to disappear again - not everyone wanted to shout about the problems. The Partnership did not welcome those who were fond of European impressionism, lightweight plots, or those who wanted to conquer foreign audiences by offering their works to competitions or exhibitions abroad. Suffice it to recall the negative reaction of the Wanderers to the work of I. Repin "What kind of space" or on K. Makovsky's paintings, written for foreign salons.
At one time, the ranks of the Wanderers were: I. Kramskoy, I. Repin, K. Makovsky, N. Bogdanov-Belsky, A. Arkhipov, V. Serov, V. Vasnetsov, I. Levitan, V. Polenov, A. Kuindzhi, A. Savrasov, I. Shishkin and many others.
Someone left the ranks of the association rather quickly, like Makovsky, choosing other landmarks for himself, someone dedicated his whole life to the Partnership, like Kramskoy.
Over the years of its existence, an independent art association has organized 47 exhibitions. In addition to the main exhibitions, there was always the organization of parallel exhibitions for cities that could not get on the main list. Thus, the geography covered by the Wanderers was more than impressive.
Moving from one city to another, these exhibitions carried culture to the masses in the most direct sense of the word, which affected the upbringing of society, a powerful impetus for the development of patronage, and also often became a platform for the education of new creators-painters who brought Russian art to high level.
Watch the video: Dion - The Wanderer - HD - Video - Stereo Sound . (February 2020).