Of course, for thousands of years of its history, a person not only created works of art, but also wrote books, music, put on theater plays. And, in addition, he comprehended the laws of nature, studied animals and plants, built ships, mined minerals, conducted agriculture, erected buildings, sewed clothes, prepared food ... Finally, he simply lived, rested, entertained, played sports.
But without interest in your past, whether it is the history of maritime affairs, musical instruments, typography or the "genealogy" of the most ordinary button, without respect for people, thanks to which certain achievements became possible, you cannot move on. That is why, apart from art, there is a great many other, very different museums. Many “special” museums, such as the Greco-Roman antiquities in Alexandria or National Archaeological Museum in Madrid. A huge collection of ancient relics is the London British Museum. It exhibits monuments of primitive society, cultures of ancient Egypt, Babylon, antiquity ...
And in Berlin, on the famous Museum Island, is located and Pergamon Museum with his collections of objects of ancient Babylon. In other exhibits of the Museum Island one can also get acquainted with the Roman, Greek, Egyptian collections. It is here that one of the sculptural images of the famous beauty Nefertiti, the wife of Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, is kept. However, historical antiquities can often be seen in art museums - for example, in the New York Metropolitan.
And in general, the appointment of many of the museums can not be determined in one word. In fact, what kind of museums include the Louvre or the Hermitage? Of course, to the artistic! But the ancient art monuments collected in them, for example, Egyptian or Greek, tell about the history of these civilizations. So the Louvre and the Hermitage are historical museums? Of course ... In addition, the Hermitage’s huge collection of Western European weapons is a completely independent museum of military affairs.
At the same time, the ancient portraits of statesmen, commanders, and paintings of the historical genre, exhibited in the Moscow Historical Museum, have unconditional artistic value. In addition, the frieze in the first hall of the museum, depicting everyday scenes from the Stone Age, was written by V. Vasnetsov. Hence, the Historical Museum is not only historical, but also artistic. And his collection of uniforms and banners can also tell visitors what the fabrics were at different times and how they were then able to sew and embroider.
The same is true of the famous Vatican museums in Rome. Daddy from century to century collected paintings and sculptures. In addition, many halls of the Vatican palaces are decorated with frescoes of great masters, including Raphael and Michelangelo. But at the same time, archaeological finds, porcelain, glass, tapestries, coins, seals, antique carriages, gold and silver items, carpets, ancient geographical maps are stored in the immense collections of the popes, and today you can also see all this in the Vatican.
In a word, not every museum can be given a precise definition. Moreover, they have their own history: over time, new sections appear, which themselves can become new museums ... And yet museology divides all museums of the world into certain groupsemphasizing their main feature. Therefore, we are talking about art, natural science, historical, local history, memorial, literary, theater museums ...
By the way, what is this such science is museologywhich is also called museology? It turns out that an important and necessary science, which includes not only history, but also the theory of museum work. After all, to organize the exhibition of any museum, and even more so to open a new one is not at all easy. Each hall is a logically connected story about something, each next one is a continuation of a story. It should be interesting to the visitor, unexpected discoveries should be waiting for him all the time.
And you need to know where to look for new exhibits for the museum. Determine exactly what items are missing for a particular meeting. And, of course, to be able to store collections so that they serve people even after many hundreds of years.
Watch the video: Museology Heritage Studies and Cultural Studies (February 2020).