Word museum comes from the Greek - museum, which means "House of Muses". In the modern sense, museums are institutions that are engaged in the study and storage of cultural monuments, as well as educational purposes.
Initially, the word museum meant any collection, but over time this concept began to denote the houses and buildings in which the exhibits were located.
The first prototype of the modern museum was founded in Alexandria under the name Museyon in 290 BC. This building had a huge number of rooms, and in one of them was the famous Library of Alexandria, which has not survived to our time. There were also reading rooms, a dining room and other rooms. Gradually the building expanded and new exhibits were added, such as stuffed animals, which were used as a visual aid for training.
Museums in ancient times
In ancient Greece, there were also premises in which there were objects of art and culture captured from other nations during wars, such as sculptures, statues and other works of art.
In the Middle Ages, works of art were presented in temples and monasteries (jewelry, manuscripts). At this time, the exhibits captured during the war served, one might say, as payment for ransoms or other expenses.
In the 15th century, Lorenzo de Medici (of the world-famous family) gave instructions to create the so-called Sculpture Garden. It was during these centuries that it became fashionable to build buildings with long corridors, and in them to arrange paintings and statues. Over time, fashion took its toll, and so-called "cabinets" began to be created - rooms specifically designed to house works of art. It quickly spread to Italy, then to Germany and then throughout Europe. Along with cabinets in Germany, collections of unusual things were created (Wunderkammer).
Creating modern museums
Any modern museum was created on the basis of a private collection. Many famous people donated their collections in order to expand it, make it richer and put it on public display. Such philanthropists often sponsored the gathering of works of art, thereby helping to create museums.
Many small collections were combined into larger ones, and modern museums were created. The most first modern museum is the British Museum in London, which was opened in 1753. To visit it, it was necessary written permission. But the first public museum was the Louvre, which opened in 1793.
Watch the video: Creation & Earth History Museum (February 2020).